The choice of hydropower turbine for a project depends on the “head,” or height of standing water, and the flow, or volume of water over time, at the location. Pressure and water flow work together to create power in a reaction turbine. In order to prevent the blades from being struck separately, a runner is positioned immediately in the water stream. The most prevalent type currently employed in the United States are reaction turbines, which are often used at sites with lower heads and larger flows. The Francis and Propeller reaction turbines are the two most popular varieties. Kinetic turbines are a type of reaction turbine.
The runner of a propeller turbine typically has three to six blades. All the blades are constantly in contact with water. Think of a pipe that a boat propeller is running in. The pressure inside the pipe is constant; otherwise, the runner wouldn’t be in balance. The blades’ pitch may be permanent or adjustable. A scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube are the other significant parts in addition to the runner. The following categories of propeller turbines exist:
Colonie Town officials are given a tour of the Schuylerville Hydroelectric Facility turbine room by John Elmer, director of operations for Brookfield Renewable, right, on Tuesday, July 9, 2019, in Schuylerville, N.Y. Under an innovative mechanism known as remote net metering, Colonie has agreed to a 20-year power purchase agreement with Gravity Renewables, Inc. for power produced at a Schuylerville hydroelectric facility owned and operated by Brookfield Renewable
James Francis, a British-American engineer, created the Francis turbine, the first hydro electric turbine of the modern era, in 1849. The runner of a Francis turbine contains fixed blades, typically nine or more. Just above the runner and all around it, water is supplied; when it falls through, the blades begin to spin. The runner is one of the main parts, along with a scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube. Francis turbines have been utilized for lower heads as well, but they are often used for medium- to high-head (130 to 2,000 foot) conditions. Francis turbines function effectively in both vertical and horizontal orientations.
Kinetic energy turbines, also known as free-flow turbines, use the kinetic energy of moving water to create electricity rather than the potential energy from the head. The systems might run in natural or artificial channels, tidal waters, ocean currents, or rivers. Although they may have uses in such conduits, kinetic systems do not require diverting water through pipes, riverbeds, or artificial channels because they make use of a water stream’s natural course. Because kinetic systems can utilise pre-existing structures like bridges, tailraces, and channels, they do not need extensive civil works.
In the video below, we can see the The Largest Hydroelectric turbine Manufacturing and assembly process
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